Drug Guide

Zovirax 250 mg, 500 mg (Aciclovir)

Zovirax I.V. 250 mg and 500 mg aciclovir What Zovirax is and what it is used for Popular Brand Drugs (Generic: Zovirax), which People Buy in Pharmacies of the UK and US Zovirax I.V. (called 'Zovirax' in this leaflet) contains a medicine called aciclovir. This belongs to a group of medicines called antivirals. It works by killing or stopping the growth of viruses. Read indications for use if you want to order Zovirax online Zovirax can be used to: treat chickenpox treat severe cases of genital herpes treat and stop cold sores and genital herpes in people whose immune systems work less well, which means their bodies are less able to […]

Nucleoside analogs

Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors have formed the backbone of anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapy for the last decade (see Table Characteristics of Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors). Reverse transcription is necessary for human immunodeficiency virus RNA to be used as a template to produce viral DNA, which can be integrated into the cellular genome. In order for reverse transcription to take place, deoxynucleotide must be added to the end of the elongating DNA. A 3′-hydroxyl group is present on the sugar moiety of deoxynucleotides that can form a 3′,5′-phosphodiester bond allowing further addition of nucleotide triphosphates. Several deoxynucleotide analogs have been synthesized that differ from normal deoxynucleotides in that the 3′-hydroxyl group […]

Management of Infective Endocarditis

Epidemiology Infective endocarditis is a microbial infection of the endothelial lining of the heart. The characteristic lesion is a vegetation (a mass comprised of fibrin, platelets, microorganisms and their product or products on a valve leaflet). Multiple valves may be involved, as may any part of the endothelium of the heart. The incidence of endocarditis ranges from 17 to 39 cases per million person-years. There have been major changes in the epidemiology of endocarditis. The age of patients affected has increased considerably. In 1945, about 10% of patients with Infective endocarditis were over 60 years of age (Lerner and Weinstein 1966), compared with 55% in 1977. The second major change in […]

Management of Malaria

Malaria is a protozoan (genus Plasmodium) infection transmitted by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito and rarely via a contaminated blood transfusion. It is extremely common, affecting more than 500 million persons and resulting in more than 1 million deaths each year. There are four species of the genus Plasmodium that cause malaria in man. These are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. From a clinical standpoint one must be able to distinguish between P. falciparum and non falciparum (all the others) malaria. The reasons for this approach are that P. falciparum malaria is often chloroquine resistant, and almost all malaria deaths are due to this […]

Erythrocytic asexual phase

This begins with penetration into red blood cells by merozoites arising from the exoerythrocytic schizonts in the liver cells. The parasites grow rapidly, and a large central vacuole forms in the cytoplasm leading to the so-called ring form. The cytoplasm then becomes amoeboid to form the single-nucleated trophozoite. At this stage it feeds on the host cell by the process of phagotrophy during which nutrients from the red blood cell are incorporated into the parasite cytoplasm inside food vacuoles lined by a double membrane. As the hemoglobin of the RBC is metabolized the contents of the vacuoles and the RBC itself become paler, and insoluble malaria pigment (hemozoin) is formed as […]

Evaluation of the efficacy of vaccines

Adequate response to immunization is most frequently judged by measuring the development of specific serum immunoglobulins (e.g., antibodies) following a course of administration of vaccine. The concentration of specific immunoglobulin in plasma is usually proportional to the degree of protection from the viral agent. However, the relation between immunologic response to a vaccine and protection afforded by it to subsequent disease must be documented in field trials. The longevity of the protective response must always be determined to establish the most appropriate interval for revaccination. Eradication Although the widespread use of antibiotics has had little success in curtailing the prevalence of bacterial infection, and in certain instances has resulted in the […]


Penicillin G Penicillin G is an acid that is combined with sodium, potassium, procaine, or benzathine to increase its stability or to regulate its absorption. The latter two are “long-acting” forms. Penicillin G is useful in the treatment of streptococcal infections due to S. pyogenes (group A), S. agalactiae (group B), S. pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, Corynebacterium diphtheria, N. meningitidis, many strains of N. gonorrhea, Treponema pallidum, and many anaerobic streptococci, such as peptococcus and peptostreptococcus. In combination with aminoglycosides, any penicillin G compounds can be used to treat enterococci and L. monocytogenes infections. These organisms cause many clinical syndromes including cellulitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia, septicemia, endocarditis, meningitis, abscesses in lung, sexually transmitted […]

Aminoglycosides – antibiotic agents

Aminoglycosides are very potent bactericidal antibiotic agents that are active against susceptible aerobic microorganisms. They kill by inhibiting protein synthesis and to some extent by lysing the cell envelope. All the aminoglycosides (streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, sisomicin, and netilmicin) share common structural features. Streptomycin is used once a day in combination with other antibiotics to treat mycobacterial infections. Neomycin is used topically to treat superficial infections (a use to be discouraged) and is also given orally preoperatively for chemoprophylaxis before large-bowel surgery. The other agents are used parenterally to treat systemic bacterial septicemia (e.g., bacterial endocarditis, or urinary tract infections) or topically to treat local infection (e.g., bacterial conjunctivitis). […]

Chloromycetin 250mg Tablets (Chloramphenicol)

Vancomycin and teicoplanin are the only members of this class of antibiotics. Vancomycin is a high-molecular-weight glycopeptide that is bactericidal for gram-positive microorganisms. It inhibits cell-wall synthesis. Given parenterally, it is the drug of choice for methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections. It should be used as an alternative for methicillin-sensitive staphylococci if the patient is allergic to penicillin. Vancomycin is also active against strains of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, Leuconostoc spp., and Pediococcus spp. Some strains of Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and enterococci are resistant to vancomycin. Based on considerable clinical experience, there is a lack of clinical evidence to use combinations of aminoglycosides or rifampin with parenteral vancomycin to treat staphylococcal infections. However, treatment […]

Macrolides: Erythromycin, Clarithromycin, Azithromycin

Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that binds to the 50-S subunit of the ribosomes. It kills susceptible bacteria by interfering with their protein synthesis. Erythromycin is active against many aerobic gram-positive bacteria, selected gram-negative bacteria (including species of Legionella, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, and Bordetella pertussis), and nonbacterial species (e.g., C. trachomatis, mycoplasma, and certain rickettsial species). There are three available oral preparations of erythromycin: erythromycin stearate, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, and erythromycin estolate. The first two preparations do not have intrinsic antibacterial activity until they dissociate or hydrolyze (respectively) to active compounds. They are routinely recommended to be taken orally one hour before meals, so that effective concentrations of drugs in plasma […]