Drug Guide

Nucleoside analogs

Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors have formed the backbone of anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapy for the last decade (see Table Characteristics of Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors). Reverse transcription is necessary for human immunodeficiency virus RNA to be used as a template to produce viral DNA, which can be integrated into the cellular genome.

Management of Infective Endocarditis

Infective endocarditis is a microbial infection of the endothelial lining of the heart. The characteristic lesion is a vegetation (a mass comprised of fibrin, platelets, microorganisms and their product or products on a valve leaflet). Multiple valves may be involved, as may any part of the endothelium of the heart.

Management of Malaria

Malaria is a protozoan (genus Plasmodium) infection transmitted by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito and rarely via a contaminated blood transfusion. It is extremely common, affecting more than 500 million persons and resulting in more than 1 million deaths each year. There are four species of the genus Plasmodium that cause malaria in man.

Evaluation of the efficacy of vaccines

Adequate response to immunization is most frequently judged by measuring the development of specific serum immunoglobulins (e.g., antibodies) following a course of administration of vaccine. The concentration of specific immunoglobulin in plasma is usually proportional to the degree of protection from the viral agent.


Penicillin G is an acid that is combined with sodium, potassium, procaine, or benzathine to increase its stability or to regulate its absorption. The latter two are “long-acting” forms. Penicillin G is useful in the treatment of streptococcal infections due to S. pyogenes (group A), S. agalactiae (group B), S. pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, Corynebacterium diphtheria, N. meningitidis, many strains of N. gonorrhea, Treponema pallidum, and many anaerobic streptococci, such as peptococcus and peptostreptococcus.

Aminoglycosides – antibiotic agents

Aminoglycosides are very potent bactericidal antibiotic agents that are active against susceptible aerobic microorganisms. They kill by inhibiting protein synthesis and to some extent by lysing the cell envelope. All the aminoglycosides (streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, sisomicin, and netilmicin) share common structural features. Streptomycin is used once a day in combination with other antibiotics to treat mycobacterial infections.

Chloromycetin 250mg Tablets (Chloramphenicol)

Vancomycin and teicoplanin are the only members of this class of antibiotics. Vancomycin is a high-molecular-weight glycopeptide that is bactericidal for gram-positive microorganisms. It inhibits cell-wall synthesis. Given parenterally, it is the drug of choice for methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections.