Chlamydia Pneumoniae

Description of Medical Condition Chlamydia pneumoniae an obligate intracellular bacteria, has been established as an important cause of adult respiratory disease including pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis and pharyngitis. There is no animal reservoir. System(s) affected: Pulmonary Genetics: No known genetic predisposition Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Estimated incidence of 100 to 200 cases of pneumonia/100,000/ year. Accounts for 6 to 12% of pneumonias and 3 to 6% of bronchitis cases. Numbers do not necessarily apply to all areas. Incidence of subclinical infection much greater. Predominant age: Less common in children under 5 years. Pneumonia more common in elderly. Predominant sex: Male > Female (10-25% more) Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease 70% to 90% […]


Description of Medical Condition A chronic non-malignant lung disease caused by inhalation of asbestos, a hazardous dust found in a variety of work places. This disease persists in spite of substantial knowledge about its cause, and effective means of prevention. The disease typically occurs 10-15 years after initial exposure. Asbestosis is a fibrotic interstitial lung disease caused by a cascade of responses to inhaled asbestos fibers. Pleural plaques and mesotheliomas can develop. It increases risk of tuberculosis and lung cancer in cigarette smokers. System(s) affected: Pulmonary Genetics: No known genetic pattern Incidence/Prevalence in USA: There is no uniform surveillance or reporting of asbestosis. In the USA, less than 10 cases per […]

Adenovirus infections

Description of Medical Condition Usually self-limited febrile illnesses characterized by inflammation of conjunctivae and the respiratory tract. Adenovirus infections occur in epidemic and endemic situations. Common types Acute febrile respiratory illness (AFRI) affecting primarily children Acute respiratory disease (ARD) affecting adults Viral pneumonia affecting children and adults Acute pharyngoconjunctival fever (APC) affecting children, particularly after summer swimming Acute follicular conjunctivitis affecting all ages Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) affecting adults Intestinal infections leading to enteritis, mesenteric adenitis and intussusception System(s) affected: Pulmonary, Gastrointestinal, Renal/Uroiogic, Nervous, Hemic/Lymphatic/lmmunologic, Musculoskeletal, Cardiovascular Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Very common infection, estimated at 2-5% of all respiratory infections. More common in infants and children. Predominant age: All ages […]

Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Emerging Therapies

Many agents are in development for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia). The majority of drugs in late-stage development are antibiotics that build on existing drug classes (e.g., fluoroquinolones). Reflecting the limited number of innovative leads, the high attrition rates, and the high development costs relative to the return, no novel classes have been introduced in the past two decades, with the exception of the oxazolidinone linezolid (Pfizer's Zyvox), which primarily targets niche antibacterial market segments such as complicated hospital infections. TABLE: Emerging Therapies in Development for Community-Acquired Pneumonia, 2004 summarizes emerging antibacterial agents in late-stage development and their expected sales potential in the community-acquired pneumonia market. The antibiotics currently […]

Order Cefpodoxime (Vantin) Without Prescription 200mg

Cefpodoxime Proxetil Cefpodoxime proxetil (Pfizer's Vantin, Sanofi-Aven-tis' Orelox, Sankyo's Banan) is an extended-spectrum, third-generation, oral cephalosporin. Sankyo originally developed cefpodoxime proxetil and first launched the cephalosporin in Japan in 1989. It was marketed in the United States by Upjohn (later Pharmacia) in 1992; Aventis marketed the agent in Europe. A generic version of cefpodoxime developed by Ranbaxy has been approved in the United States. Cefpodoxime is indicated for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae (including β-lactamase-producing strains). Cefpodoxime proxetil is an esterified pro-drug of cefpodoxime created for oral formulation. It is stable in the presence of most β-lactamase enzymes, effectively extending its spectrum of activity […]

Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Current Therapies

Overview Many highly effective agents are available for the treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia) and other community-acquire respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Currently marketed antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia demonstrate similar efficacy rates in clinical trials, and these agents have generally achieved clinical symptom resolution in 85-95% of trial participants. The drugs differ mainly in their spectrum of activity (the organisms against which the agent is effective), side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, and dose form availability. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are effective against a wide range of pathogens; narrow-spectrum antibiotics tend to be efficacious against a narrower range of bacterial species, generally either gram-positive or gram-negative organisms. TABLE:Mechanisms of Resistance Against Select Antibacterial Classes, […]

Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and other community-acquired pneumonia pathogens has progressed at an alarming rate. Approximately one-third of pneumococci exhibit reduced susceptibility to penicillin (i.e., higher MICs) that also confers reduced susceptibility to other agents in the β-lactam class of antibiotics. Macrolide resistance levels range between 23% and 30% in the United States, and much higher levels are observed in some other markets. Table Mechanism of Action of Drugs Commonly Used in the Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia shows the prevalence of resistance to various antibiotics in S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. TABLE: Mechanism of Action of Drugs Commonly Used in the Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Drug Class Mechanism of Action Penicillins […]


Overview The penicillins comprise several subgroups of agents with a wide range of bacterial coverage and efficacy. Each penicillin molecule contains a basic β-lactam structure fused to a five-membered ring. Because of their broad spectrum of activity and availability in oral form, the penicillins are commonly used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and have become the drugs of choice in treating many common infections. The penicillins are divided into the following groups: natural penicillins, aminopenicillins, and the extended-spectrum penicillins. The natural penicillins (e.g., penicillin G) have the narrowest spectrum. They are active only against the gram-positive cocci; in community-acquired pneumonia, they are active essentially against S. pneumoniae only. The aminopenicillins […]


Overview The cephalosporins contain a basic β-lactam structure fused to a six-membered ring. Drugs in this class differ widely in their spectrum of activity, susceptibility to β-lactamases produced by bacteria, and serum half-life. Cephalosporins are categorized into four generations, with each newer generation representing an improvement in the spectrum of bacterial coverage. The most important agents in this class are the second- and third-generation agents, which are commonly used in hospitalized patients in combination with a macrolide. One of the limitations of the cephalosporins is lack of activity against the atypical pathogens, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. First-generation cephalosporins have the narrowest spectrum of activity and are most active […]

Buy Cefprozil, Ceftin Online Without Prescription

Cefuroxime Axetil. Cefprozil Cefuroxime Axetil Cefuroxime axetil (GSK's Ceftin/Zinnat/Oracef) is a second-generation cephalosporin consisting of an esterified pro-drug of cefuroxime created for oral formulation; the active antibiotic metabolite cefuroxime is released after cefuroxime axetil absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. First launched in the United States in 1988, cefuroxime axetil was available as a generic in the United States by 2002. Cefuroxime is active against a broad spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, E. coli, H. influenzae, K. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis. Cefuroxime axetil is indicated for a number of bacterial infections, including RTIs caused by β-lactam  ase-negative strains of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. […]