Tags: Abdominal Abscess

Important Anaerobes

Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant component of the normal microbial flora of the human body. The following sites harbor the vast majority of them:

Important Anaerobes: Clinical Syndromes

Box 1 summarizes different clinical syndromes associated with anaerobic bacteria. The sections that follow describe the various syndromes, including clinical findings. For some syndromes, specific diagnosis and treatment information is included as well.

Intra-abdominal Infections

Intra-abdominal infections are those contained within the peritoneum or retroperitoneal space. Two general types of intra-abdominal infection are discussed throughout this chapter: peritonitis and abscess.

Amphotericin B: Uses

Conventional IV amphotericin B (formulated with sodium desoxycholate) is used for the treatment of potentially life-threatening fungal infections including aspergillosis, North American blastomycosis, systemic candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis,, sporotrichosis, and zygomycosis.

Buy Cleocin (Clindamycin) Without Prescription 150/300mg

Clindamycin generally is used for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible gram-positive bacteria and for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. Because the risk of severe, potentially fatal Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis may be higher with clindamycin than with certain other anti-infectives, use of the drug should be limited to serious infections for which less toxic and/or more effective anti-infectives are not readily available. However, it should be noted that C. difficile diarrhea and colitis has been associated with the use of nearly all anti-infectives, being reported most frequently with clindamycin, cephalosporins, and ampicillin; second and third generation cephalosporins play an increasingly important role.

Aztreonam

The drug should not be used alone for empiric therapy in seriously ill patients if there is a possibility that the infection may be caused by gram-positive bacteria or if a mixed aerobic-anaerobic bacterial infection is suspected. In such infections, another anti-infective agent effective against the suspected, potentially aztreonam-resistant organism should initially be used concomitantly. Aztreonam has been used safely and effectively in conjunction with an aminoglycoside, clindamycin, erythromycin, metronidazole, a penicillin, or vancomycin.

Cefoxitin Sodium

Cefoxitin is used in the treatment of serious infections of the lower respiratory tract, skin and skin structure, bone and joint, and urinary tract; septicemia; gynecologic infections (including endometritis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease); and intra-abdominal infections (including peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess) caused by susceptible bacteria. Cefoxitin also has been used in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea and is used for perioperative prophylaxis. Prior to and during cefoxitin therapy, the causative organism should be cultured and in vitro susceptibility tests conducted. In serious infections, therapy may be initiated pending results of in vitro tests.

Imipenem and Cilastatin

Imipenem and cilastatin sodium is a fixed combination of imipenem monohydrate (a semisynthetic carbapenem b-lactam antibiotic) and cilastatin sodium, 1, 35 which prevents renal metabolism of imipenem by dehydropeptidase I (DHP I).

Ceftizoxime Sodium

Ceftizoxime is used for the treatment of bone and joint infections, intra-abdominal infections, meningitis, lower respiratory tract infections, septicemia, skin and skin structure infections, and urinary tract infections caused by susceptible bacteria. The drug also is used for the treatment of gonorrhea and pelvic inflammatory disease.