Tags: Candidiasis

Dermatophytes

Dermatophytes are molds that infect keratinized tissues including skin, hair, and nails. Whereas 40 dermatophyte species are known to infect humans, only about 15 of these are common causes of disease. These organisms belong to three genera, Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton. Because these fungi have such similar infectivity, morphology, and pathogenicity, they are often categorized according to the clinical syndrome and the preferred anatomic site with which they are associated, such as tinea capitis, tinea pedis, etc.

Candida Species

Candida organisms are commensal with humans and, in the absence of alterations in host defense mechanisms, usually do not cause disease. Candida exists as normal flora within the oral cavity, throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in expectorated sputum, in the vagina, and in the bladder of patients with indwelling catheters. There are >150 species within the genus Candida, although the majority are not known to cause disease in humans. C albicans, C krusei, C glabrata, C tropicalis, C pseudotropicalis, C guilliermondii, C parapsilosis, C lusitaniae, and C rugosa are known human pathogens.

Candidemia & Disseminated Candidiasis

Candidemia may present in a variety of fashions, ranging from asymptomatic to fulminant sepsis. The candidemic patient generally has risk factors for infection, such as malignancy, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, organ transplantation, GI surgery, burns, indwelling catheters, or exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Disseminated candidiasis must be assumed to be present in those with positive blood cultures, although negative cultures do not preclude the possibility of disseminated disease. Dissemination usually manifests with many microabscesses involving multiple organs, especially the liver, spleen, and eye, but almost any organ may be involved (Box 2).

Candiduria, Candida Cystitis & Urinary Tract Candidiasis

The presence of Candida spp. in the urine is common and does not necessarily represent infection. Candiduria is commonly associated with antibiotic use, indwelling urinary catheters, and diabetes mellitus and frequently resolves if predisposing factors can be corrected. Patients are generally asymptomatic, although some will have symptoms similar to bacterial cystitis, with dysuria, frequency, and urgency (Box 2).

Esophageal Candidiasis

Candida infection of the esophagus can present with a range of clinical findings (Box 1). Between 20 and 50% of patients may be asymptomatic. Others will note dysphagia, odynophagia, epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting, or hematemesis. Fever may be present.

Oral Candidiasis (Oral thrush)

Candida infections of the oral cavity are relatively common and may present in several forms. Any of the forms may be asymptomatic or may cause soreness and burning. The most common, acute pseudomembranous candidiasis, or oral thrush, presents with multiple white patches on the tongue, palate, and other areas of oral mucosa.

Secondary Syphilis

The secondary stage of syphilis occasionally overlaps with the primary phase but usually begins ~ 6 weeks after resolution of the chancre; however, it can develop as late as 6 months after infection (see Box  1). Most patients have some degree of skin or mucocutaneous involvement. A faint and evanescent macular rash of the trunk and abdomen known as roseola syphilitica is sometimes seen initially.

Norfloxacin: Side Effects

In a double-blind, multicenter study 171 patients who had acute pyelonephritis were given intravenous cefuroxime for 2-3 days, followed by ceftibuten 200 mg bd or norfloxacin 400 mg bd for 10 days. There were fewer bacterial relapses after oral norfloxacin than ceftibuten. Adverse events were reported by 47% of the patients taking ceftibuten and by 38% of those taking norfloxacin. This difference was not significant, but diarrhea or loose stools occurred more often with ceftibuten.

Buy Without Prescription Sporanox (Itraconazole) 100mg

Itraconazole is a triazole antifungal drug. It is used orally to treat oropharyngeal and vulvovaginal candidiasis, pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytoses unresponsive to topical treatment, and systemic infections, including aspergillosis, blastomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, cocci-dioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, paracocci-dioidomycosis, and sporotrichosis.