Tags: Cat scratch disease

Toxoplasma Gondii

General Considerations Epidemiology Toxoplasma gondii infection, or toxoplasmosis, is a zoonosis (the definitive hosts are members of the cat family). The two most common routes of infection in humans are by oral ingestion of the parasite and by transplacental (congenital) transmission to the fetus. Ingestion of undercooked or raw meat that contains cysts or of water or food contaminated with oocysts results in acute infection. In humans, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases with age. There are also considerable geographic differences in prevalence rates (eg, 10% in Palo Alto, CA; 15% in Boston, MA; 30% in Birmingham, AL; 70% in France; = 90% in El Salvador). Differences in the epidemiology of T […]


Essentials of Diagnosis Key signs and symptoms include dermal lesion (bacillary angiomatosis and chronic phase of Bartonella bacilliformis infection); papule at inoculation site followed by proximal lymphadenopathy (cat scratch disease); fever, bacteremia, acute hemolytic anemia (acute phase of B bacilliformis infection); persistent or relapsing fever (fever and bacteremia/endocarditis). Predisposing factors include louse exposure, low income, and homelessness (Bartonella quintana-associated bacillary angiomatosis, fever, and bacteremia/endocarditis); cat exposure (cat scratch disease and Bartonella henselae-associated bacillary angiomatosis, fever and bacteremia/endocarditis); sandfly exposure in endemic areas of South American Andes (B bacilliformis infection). History of HIV or immunocompromise (bacillary angiomatosis). Key laboratory findings include small, curved, pleomorphic weakly gram-negative bacilli, best visualized with Warthin-Starry silver […]

Fever & Bacteremia/Trench Fever/Endocarditis

The four Bartonella species that are pathogenic for humans are capable of causing sustained or relapsing bacteremia accompanied by only fever (Table 1). All except B bacilliformis also cause endocarditis. After B quintana enters the body through broken skin from the excreta of the infected human body louse (Pediculus humanus), there is an incubation period of between 5 and 20 days before the onset of trench fever. Patients complain of fever, myalgias, malaise, headache, bone pain — particularly of the legs, and a transient macular rash. Usually the illness continues for 4-6 weeks. Sustained or recurrent bacteremia is common, with or without symptoms. The form of trench fever described in the […]

Bartonella Infections

Description of Medical Condition Bartonella infections cause manifestations in two broad categories: Localized skin lesions and prominent regional lymphadenitis, i.e., typical cat scratch disease (CSD). Atypical CSD manifestations often represent disseminated infection. Primary bacteremia, potential for persistent disseminated infection with localized inflammatory (and neovascular) lesions in a variety of organ systems and/or ongoing bacteremia. System(s) affected: Nervous, Cardiovascular, Musculoskeletal, Pulmonary, Gastrointestinal, Skin/ Exocrine, Hemic/Lymphatic/lmmunologic Genetics: No defined genetic predisposition Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Non-B. bacilliformis infections: CSD: estimated 9.3/100,000 people (approximately 25,000 cases annually) Others, no incidence estimates Predominant age: B. henselae infections: CSD: 55% in persons < 18 years old BA/BP, bacteremia, endocarditis, other syndromes: predominantly adults Predominant sex: Non-B. bacilliformis […]

Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Antibiotics Before prescribing a specific antibiotic, clinicians should be able to answer these questions: How does the antibiotic kill or inhibit bacterial growth? What are the antibiotic's toxicities and how should they be monitored? How is the drug metabolized, and what are the dosing recommendations? Does the dosing schedule need to be modified in patients with renal dysfunction? What are the indications for using each specific antibiotic? How broad is the antibiotic's antimicrobial spectrum? How much does the antibiotic cost? Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in each class can be subtle, often […]

Rifampin: Uses

Tuberculosis Active Tuberculosis Rifampin is used in conjunction with other antituberculosis agents for the treatment of clinical tuberculosis. The American Thoracic Society (ATS), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) currently recommend several possible multiple-drug regimens for the treatment of culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. These regimens have a minimum duration of 6 months (26 weeks), and consist of an initial intensive phase (2 months) and a continuation phase (usually either 4 or 7 months). Rifampin is considered a first-line antituberculosis agent for the treatment of all forms of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis known or presumed to be susceptible to the drug, and is […]

Tetracyclines General Statement: Uses

Tetracyclines are used principally in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and a variety of uncommon gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Because of the development of resistance, tetracyclines are rarely used for the treatment of infections caused by common gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria unless other appropriate anti-infectives are contraindicated or are ineffective and in vitro susceptibility tests indicate that the causative organisms are susceptible to the drugs. Generally, given a susceptible organism, the currently available tetracyclines are all equally effective when administered in appropriate dosages. Because minocycline and, to a lesser extent, doxycycline penetrate most body tissues and fluids better than do other currently available tetracyclines, some clinicians […]

Buy Ciloxan Online Without Prescription 0.3%-5ml

Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride: Uses Ciprofloxacin is used orally or IV in adults for the treatment of urinary tract infections, chronic bacterial prostatitis, acute sinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, or bone and joint infections caused by susceptible gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic bacteria. Ciprofloxacin is used orally or IV for inhalational anthrax (postexposure) following suspected or confirmed exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores and also is used for prophylaxis following ingestion of B. anthracis spores and for the treatment of inhalational anthrax, cutaneous anthrax, or GI and oropharyngeal anthrax. Ciprofloxacin also is used orally for the treatment of acute sinusitis, uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea, typhoid fever, and GI […]

Buy Azithromycin (Zithromax) Without Prescription 250/500mg

Azithromycin Azithromycin is a semisynthetic azalide antibiotic, a subclass of macrolide antibiotics, with a broader spectrum than that of erythromycins or clarithromycin. Uses Azithromycin is used orally in adults for the treatment of mild to moderate upper and lower respiratory tract infections and uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible organisms. Oral azithromycin also is used for the treatment of urethritis or cervicitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and for the treatment of chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. Azithromycin is used orally for the treatment of disseminated infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and for prevention of disseminated […]

Order Ilosone (Erythromycin) No Prescription 250\500mg

Erythromycin Erythromycins are macrolide antibiotics that are active principally against gram-positive cocci and bacilli and to a lesser extent gram-negative cocci and bacilli; the drugs also exhibit activity against chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, spirochetes, and mycobacteria. Uses Prior to initiation of erythromycin therapy, appropriate specimens should be obtained for identification of the causative organism and in vitro susceptibility tests. Use of erythromycin does not preclude the necessity for surgical procedures (such as incision and drainage) as needed. There does not appear to be a difference in clinical efficacy among the erythromycin derivatives when each is administered in appropriate doses. However, some clinicians believe that the risk of hepatotoxicity from the estolate derivative […]