Tags: Enterococcal infections

Enterococci

Enterococci are able to grow and survive under harsh conditions and can be found in soil, food, water, and a wide variety of animals. The major habitat of these organisms is the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals, where they make up a significant portion of the normal gut flora. Most enterococci isolated from human stools are E faecalis, although E faecium are also commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Small numbers of enterococci are occasionally found in oropharyngeal and vaginal secretions and on the skin, especially in the perineal area.

Enterococci: Clinical Syndromes

Urinary tract infections, including uncomplicated cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, and perinephric abscess, are the most common type of clinical infections produced by enterococci (Box 1). Most enterococcal urinary tract infections are nosocomial and are associated with urinary catheterization or instrumentation. Nosocomial enterococcal bacteremias are commonly polymicrobial. Portals of entry for enterococcal bacteremia include the urinary tract, intra-abdominal or pelvic sources, wounds (especially burns, decubitus ulcers, and diabetic foot infections), intravascular catheters, and the biliary tree.

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials.

Chloromycetin 250mg Tablets (Chloramphenicol)

Vancomycin and teicoplanin are the only members of this class of antibiotics. Vancomycin is a high-molecular-weight glycopeptide that is bactericidal for gram-positive microorganisms. It inhibits cell-wall synthesis. Given parenterally, it is the drug of choice for methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections.

Buy Linezolid (Zyvox) Without Prescription 600mg

Linezolid is used orally and/or IV for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections and for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, nosocomial pneumonia, and uncomplicated or complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible staphylococci or streptococci.

Aminoglycosides: Amikacin, Gentamicin, Kanamycin, or Tobramycin

Amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, or tobramycin is used IM or IV in the short-term treatment of serious infections such as septicemia (including neonatal sepsis), bone and joint infections, skin and soft tissue infections (including those resulting from burns), respiratory tract infections, and postoperative and intra-abdominal infections (including peritonitis) caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria.

Preface to the Penicillins General Statements

Based on Spectra of Activity Penicillins are natural or semisynthetic antibiotics produced by or derived from certain species of the fungus Penicillium. The drugs are b-lactam antibiotics structurally and pharmacologically related to other b-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins and cephamycins.

Imipenem and Cilastatin

Imipenem and cilastatin sodium is a fixed combination of imipenem monohydrate (a semisynthetic carbapenem b-lactam antibiotic) and cilastatin sodium, 1, 35 which prevents renal metabolism of imipenem by dehydropeptidase I (DHP I).

Cubicin (daptomycin) : drug for skin infections

Daptomycin (Cubicin) is a cyclic lipopeptide natural product and thus represents a new structural class of antibacterial drugs with a mechanism of action that is different from those of other available antibiotics. It produces its antimicrobial effects by binding to bacterial membranes and causing a rapid depolarization of membrane potential.

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