Tags: Gentamicin Sulfate

Other Gram-Positive Cocci

Viridans streptococci are part of the normal microbial flora of humans and animals and are indigenous to the upper respiratory tract, the female genital tract, all regions of the gastrointestinal tract, and, most significantly, the oral cavity. Clinically significant species that are currently recognized as belonging to the viridans group of streptococci include Streptococcus anginosus S constellatus, S cristatus, S gordonii, S intermedius, S oralis, S mitis, S mutans, S cricettus, S rattis, S parasanguis, S salivarius, S thermophilus, S sanguinis, S sobrinus, and S vestibularis. Detailed studies of the ecology of strains in the oral cavity and oropharynx have been performed.

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials.

Toxicity of Antimicrobial Therapy

The mechanisms associated with common adverse reactions to antimicrobials include dose-related toxicity that occurs in a certain fraction of patients when a critical plasma concentration or total dose is exceeded, and toxicity that is unpredictable and mediated through allergic or idiosyncratic mechanisms. For example, certain classes of drugs such as the aminoglycosides are associated with dose-related toxicity.

Management of Bacterial Meningitis

Meningitis used to be a disease that occurred primarily in children younger than 12 years. The advent of a vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae has led to a marked change in the epidemiology of meningitis in developed countries.

Management of Infective Endocarditis

Infective endocarditis is a microbial infection of the endothelial lining of the heart. The characteristic lesion is a vegetation (a mass comprised of fibrin, platelets, microorganisms and their product or products on a valve leaflet). Multiple valves may be involved, as may any part of the endothelium of the heart.

Management of Sepsis

Sepsis, sepsis syndrome, septic shock, and multiorgan dysfunction are all part of a continuum of infection-related systemic illness. Table Definitions for Sepsis, Sepsis Syndrome, Septic Shock and Multiorgan Dysfunction Syndrome gives definitions for each of these entities. The pathogenesis of sepsis is very complex, involving a large number of mediators.

Order Clindamycin (Cleocin) No Prescription 150/300mg

The drug also is active in vitro against Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (formerly Corynebacterium haemolyticum). Clindamycin is active against some anaerobic and microaerophilic gram-negative and gram-positive organisms including Actinomyces, Bacteroides, Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, Propionibacterium, microaerophilic streptococci, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella. Clindamycin is active in vitro against Prevotella and Porphyromonas (both formerly classified as Bacteroides); Mobiluncus (motile, anaerobic, curved rods) also are inhibited in vitro by the drug. Clostridium perfringens, C. tetani, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and Mycoplasma are also inhibited by clindamycin.

Order Cleocin (Clindamycin) No Prescription 150/300mg

Clindamycin hydrochloride and clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride are administered orally. Clindamycin phosphate is administered by IM injection or by intermittent or continuous IV infusion. Clindamycin hydrochloride capsules and clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride oral solution can be administered without regard to food. To avoid the possibility of esophageal irritation, clindamycin hydrochloride capsules should be administered orally with a full glass of water.

Aminoglycosides: Amikacin, Gentamicin, Kanamycin, or Tobramycin

Amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, or tobramycin is used IM or IV in the short-term treatment of serious infections such as septicemia (including neonatal sepsis), bone and joint infections, skin and soft tissue infections (including those resulting from burns), respiratory tract infections, and postoperative and intra-abdominal infections (including peritonitis) caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria.