Tags: Kanamycin


Essentials of Diagnosis The cardinal symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) are fatigue, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. The most commonly infected populations include the homeless, institutionalized patients, and HIV-positive patients. In most cases, a TB skin test (PPD) is positive. To establish presence of infection, an acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear demonstrates the acid-fast bacillus. In primary pulmonary TB, an infiltrate in the lower lobes of the lung is usually seen on chest x-ray. In contrast, apical lung infiltrates are commonly seen in the reactivation of pulmonary TB. General Considerations Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still an important pathogen. Approximately one-third of the world's population is infected with M tuberculosis, according to World Health […]


Essentials of Diagnosis Gram stain shows gram-positive cocci that occur in singles, pairs, and short chains; recovery of microorganism from culture of blood or other sterile source. Lancefield group D antigen. Clinical isolates: Enterococcus faecalis, 74%; E faecium, 16%; other species, 10%. Facultative anaerobes grow in 6.5% NaCl at pH 9.6 and at temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 45 °C, and grow in the presence of 40% bile salts and hydrolyze esculin and L-pyrrolidonyl-ß-naphthylamide. Infections typically of a gastrointestinal or genitourinary origin. The most common infections are urinary tract infection, bacteremia, endocarditis, intra-abdominal and pelvic infection, and wound and soft tissue infection. General Considerations Epidemiology Enterococci are able to grow […]

Order Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Without Prescription 500mg

Amoxicillin: A Broad Spectrum Antibiotic Amoxicillin though originally introduced in the early 1970's for oral use in U.K., has found a gradually regular place as broad spectrum antibacterial to treat the infections of various diseases. Amoxicillin has been found to be more effective against gram positive than gram negative microorganisms and demonstrated greater efficacy to penicillin and penicillin V. Moreover, it has been found comparable to other antibiotics, e.g. ampicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, cefuroxime and doxycycline in treatment of various infections / diseases. In the past decade, amoxicillin has been reported to be useful in the management of many indications and is used to treat infections of the middle ear (otitis media) […]

Treatment of Tuberculosis

General principles Drug treatment is the cornerstone of Tuberculosis management. A minimum of two drugs, and generally three or four drugs, must be used simultaneously. Drug treatment is continued for at least 6 months and up to 2 to 3 years for some cases of multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-Tuberculosis). Measures to assure adherence, such as directly observed therapy (DOT), are important. Pharmacologic treatment Latent Infection Chemoprophylaxis should be initiated in patients to reduce the risk of progression to active disease. Isoniazid, 300 mg daily in adults, is the primary treatment for latent Tuberculosis in the United States, generally given for 9 months. Individuals likely to be noncompliant may be treated with a […]

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials. Determinants of Antimicrobial Efficacy Measurement of antimicrobial activity in vitro Susceptibility testing is indicated for any bacterial pathogen warranting chemotherapy. Drugs that irreversibly destroy the ability of an organism to replicate, and perhaps in the process destroy the structural integrity of the organism, are microbicidal. Drugs that reversibly impair replicating ability, with this function being restored when drug concentrations fall below critical inhibitory levels, are microbiostatic. In quantitative […]

Management of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis was a disappearing disease in North America until the early 1980s. However, the spread of human immunodeficiency virus infection has changed that. From 1985 to 1992 there was an increase in the number of cases of tuberculosis reported in the United States, and most of these cases were in New York, New Jersey, Texas, Florida, and California. The other major change in the epidemiology of tuberculosis has been the emergence of multidrug-resistant disease. Factors contributing to this problem in the United States include inadequate public health resources to meet increased needs and unstable living conditions for many of the patients (especially in the homeless injection drug users, many with coexistent […]

Aminoglycosides – antibiotic agents

Aminoglycosides are very potent bactericidal antibiotic agents that are active against susceptible aerobic microorganisms. They kill by inhibiting protein synthesis and to some extent by lysing the cell envelope. All the aminoglycosides (streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, sisomicin, and netilmicin) share common structural features. Streptomycin is used once a day in combination with other antibiotics to treat mycobacterial infections. Neomycin is used topically to treat superficial infections (a use to be discouraged) and is also given orally preoperatively for chemoprophylaxis before large-bowel surgery. The other agents are used parenterally to treat systemic bacterial septicemia (e.g., bacterial endocarditis, or urinary tract infections) or topically to treat local infection (e.g., bacterial conjunctivitis). […]

Capreomycin Sulfate

Capreomycin, a polypeptide antibiotic complex of 4 microbiologically active components, is an antituberculosis agent. Uses Tuberculosis Active Tuberculosis Capreomycin is used in conjunction with other antituberculosis agents in the treatment of clinical tuberculosis. The American Thoracic Society (ATS), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) currently recommend several possible multiple-drug regimens for the treatment of culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. These regimens have a minimum duration of 6 months (26 weeks), and consist of an initial intensive phase (2 months) and a continuation phase (usually either 4 or 7 months). Capreomycin is considered a second-line antituberculosis agent for use in these regimens. The drug usually […]

Antituberculosis Agents General Statement

Aminosalicylic Acid, Aminosalicylate Sodium, Capreomycin Sulfate, Clofazimine, Cycloserine, Ethambutol Hydrochloride, Ethionamide, Isoniazid, Kanamycin Sulfate, Pyrazinamide, Rifabutin, Rifampin, Rifapentine, Streptomycin Sulfate General Principles in Antituberculosis Therapy Antituberculosis agents are antibiotics and synthetic anti-infectives used in the treatment of tuberculosis and other diseases caused by organisms of the genus Mycobacterium. Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide are the drugs used most frequently in the treatment of tuberculosis and are considered first-line agents for use in antituberculosis regimens. Rifapentine and rifabutin, like rifampin, are rifamycin derivatives; these drugs also are considered first-line agents and are used as alternatives to rifampin in antituberculosis regimens. Other antituberculosis agents currently available in the US are considered second-line agents […]

Order Clindamycin (Cleocin) No Prescription 150/300mg

Clindamycin Hydrochloride, Clindamycin Palmitate Hydrochloride, Clindamycin Phosphate Clindaymcin is a semisynthetic antibiotic that is a derivative of lincomycin. Spectrum Clindamycin is active against most aerobic gram-positive cocci including staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and other streptococci (except Enterococcus faecalis [formerly S. faecalis]). The drug also is active in vitro against Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (formerly Corynebacterium haemolyticum). Clindamycin is active against some anaerobic and microaerophilic gram-negative and gram-positive organisms including Actinomyces, Bacteroides, Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, Propionibacterium, microaerophilic streptococci, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella. Clindamycin is active in vitro against Prevotella and Porphyromonas (both formerly classified as Bacteroides); Mobiluncus (motile, anaerobic, curved rods) also are inhibited in vitro by the drug. Clostridium perfringens, C. tetani, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and […]