Tags: Methenamine

Toxoplasma Gondii

Toxoplasma gondii infection, or toxoplasmosis, is a zoonosis (the definitive hosts are members of the cat family). The two most common routes of infection in humans are by oral ingestion of the parasite and by transplacental (congenital) transmission to the fetus. Ingestion of undercooked or raw meat that contains cysts or of water or food contaminated with oocysts results in acute infection.

Extrapulmonary P Carinii Infections

Extrapulmonary P carinii infections occur in < 3% of patients and must be diagnosed with histopathologic samples. Primary prophylaxis for PCP with pentamidine may confer a higher risk for extrapulmonary infection. Symptoms of extrapulmonary involvement are nonspecific, usually consisting of fevers, chills, and sweats.

Blastomyces Dermatitidis (Blastomycosis)

Blastomyces dermatitidis is an endemic fungus that causes acute and chronic infections in humans and other animals. It is found primarily in the south central, southeastern, and midwestern United States, especially in the states surrounding the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Outside the United States, cases have been reported from Canadian provinces bordering the Great Lakes, Africa, India, the Middle East, and Central and South America.

Histoplasma Capsulatum

Histoplasma capsulatum, the etiologic agent of histoplasmosis, is an endemic, dimorphic fungus that causes a wide spectrum of disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. It is found in temperate zones around the world. In the United States, it is endemic within the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys.

Blastomycosis

Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Ranges from 0.4-4 cases per 100,000 population per year. Higher prevalence in states bordering the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Sporadic cases occurring in other areas.

Specific Causes Of Acute Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Great overlap occurs among the clinical manifestations of the pathogens associated with acute community-acquired pneumonia. However, constellations of symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings serve to narrow the possibilities. By developing an ability to focus on a few pathogens or to identify a specific pathogen, clinicians can better predict the clinical course of pneumonia and can narrow antibiotic coverage. Pathogenic strains of S. pneumoniae have a thick capsule that prevents PMN binding and that blocks phagocytosis.

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials.

Buy Bactrim (Co-trimoxazole) 400mg/800mg No Prescription

Co-trimoxazole is used for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by susceptible strains of E. coli, Proteus (indole-positive or -negative), Klebsiella, Morganella morganii, or Enterobacter. Co-trimoxazole, given in single doses, as 3-day therapy, or for 7-10 days, is effective in the treatment of acute uncomplicated UTIs. Some clinicians consider a 3-day regimen of co-trimoxazole the treatment of choice for the empiric treatment of acute uncomplicated UTIs. Co-trimoxazole also is used for the treatment of acute complicated UTIs (e.g., UTIs associated with abnormalities of the urinary tract or neurogenic bladder), but other anti-infectives are preferred by most clinicians.

Sulfonamides General Statement

Sulfonamides, synthetic derivatives of p-aminobenzenesulfonamide (sulfanilamide), are classified as anti-infectives if they possess antibacterial activity that is antagonized by p-aminobenzoic acid or p-aminobenzoyl glutamic acid.