Tags: Methicillin

Branhamella Catarrhalis: Clinical Syndromes

B catarrhalis causes bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with underlying lung disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is also a rare cause of invasive disease, including meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia without a focus, septic arthritis, and cellulitis.

Enterococci

Enterococci are able to grow and survive under harsh conditions and can be found in soil, food, water, and a wide variety of animals. The major habitat of these organisms is the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals, where they make up a significant portion of the normal gut flora. Most enterococci isolated from human stools are E faecalis, although E faecium are also commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Small numbers of enterococci are occasionally found in oropharyngeal and vaginal secretions and on the skin, especially in the perineal area.

Staphylococci

Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the human skin, vagina, nasopharynx, and gastrointestinal tract. Colonization occurs shortly after birth and may be either transient or persistent. Published studies differ widely in estimates of the prevalence of S aureus carriage.

Primary Bacteremia & Endocarditis

Staphylococci (both S aureus and CoNS) have emerged as the two most common organisms cultured from patients with primary bloodstream infections. The term “primary bacteremia” refers to positive blood cultures without an identifiable anatomic focus of infection. Differentiation of primary bacteremia from infective endocarditis (IE), in which infection of the cardiac valves leads to continuous bacterial seeding of the bloodstream, may challenge even the most experienced clinician. Primary S aureus bacteremia is associated with insulin-dependent diabetes, the presence of a vascular graft, and, most significantly, the presence of an indwelling intravascular catheter.

Order Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Without Prescription 500mg

Amoxicillin, an acid stable, semi-synthetic drug belongs to a class of antibiotics called the Penicillins (beta-lactam antibiotics). It is shown to be effective against a wide range of infections caused by wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in both human and animals.

Cardiovascular Infections

Acute endocarditis is life-threatening and often requires surgical intervention. Subacute endocarditis is an indolent disease that can continue for months. Infective endocarditis remains a serious but relatively uncommon problem.

Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections

Can be life-threatening. Often prolong hospital stay, and can be complicated by metastatic lesions and bacterial endocarditis. A 53-year-old white woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of severe shaking during infusion of her hyperalimentation solution. She had been receiving intravenous hyperalimentation for 16years for a severe dumping syndrome that prevented eating by mouth.

Central Nervous System Infections

Central nervous system infections are fortunately rare, but they are extremely serious. The cerebral cortex and spinal cord are confined within the restricted boundaries of the skull and boney spinal canal. Inflammation and edema therefore have devastating consequences, often leading to tissue infarction that in turn results in permanent neurologic sequelae or death.

Meningitis

Bacterial meningitis remains one of the most feared and dangerous infectious diseases that a physician can encounter. This form of meningitis constitutes a true infectious disease emergency. It is important that the physician quickly make the appropriate diagnosis and initiate antibiotic therapy.

Central Nervous System Abscess

Brain abscess is an uncommon disease, found in about 1 in 10,000 general hospital admissions. Infection of the cerebral cortex can result from the direct spread of bacteria from another focus of infection (accounts for 20% to 60% of cases) or from hematogenous seeding.