Tags: Mucormycosis

Fusarium, Penicillium, Paracoccidioides, & Agents of Chromomycosis

Fusarium spp. is an emerging fungal pathogen. Although long recognized as a cause of local infection involving nails, traumatized skin, or the cornea (eg, in contact lens wearers), deep or disseminated infection was not described until the mid 1970s. Despite its worldwide distribution and its frequent recovery from soil and vegetative material, infection is quite rare. Only ~ 100 cases involving invasive disease in immunosuppressed patients have been described in the medical literature.

Chromomycosis

Chromomycosis, also known as chromoblastomycosis, is a chronic subcutaneous infection caused by several different fungi. Although rarely seen in the United States, it is common worldwide. Chromomycosis occurs worldwide but is most frequently encountered in tropical and subtropical regions. The most common occurrence is in barefoot individuals, particularly among agricultural workers.

Aspergillus, Pseudallescheria, & Agents of Mucormycosis

Aspergillus spp. are found worldwide and grow in a variety of conditions. They commonly grow in soil and moist locations and are among the most common molds encountered on spoiled food and decaying vegetation, in compost piles, and in stored hay and grain. Aspergillus spp. often grow in houseplant soil, and such soil may be a source of Aspergillus conidia or spores in the home, office, or hospital setting. The airborne conidia are extremely heat resistant and can withstand extreme environmental conditions.

Mucormycosis: Clinical Syndromes

Rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs most commonly in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, especially after an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis. It may also occur in leukemic patients who have had prolonged neutropenia and therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and occasionally in organ transplant recipients. The earliest symptoms in rhinocerebral mucormycosis are facial pain, headache, and nasal stuffiness.

Itraconazole 100 mg Capsules (Sporanox)

Like other azoles, it interferes with the cytochrome P-450-dependent enzyme, 14a-demethylase. This leads to 14-methylsterol accumulation and ergosterol depletion in fungal cells and this results in alterations in a number of membrane-associated cell functions. Itraconazole has a broad spectrum of action including Aspergillus species, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Candida species, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Scedosporium apiospermum and Sporothrix schenckii.

Fluconazole 50, 100, 150, 200 mg Tablets (Diflucan)

Fluconazole is a potent inhibitor of ergosterol biosynthesis, through its action on the cytochrome P-450-dependent enzyme, lanosterol 14a-demethylase. Depletion of ergosterol, the principal sterol in the membrane of susceptible fungal cells, and accumulation of methylated sterols leads to alterations in a number of membrane-associated cell functions. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum of action including Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is active against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, but many strains of C. krusei and Torulopsis glabrata (now reclassified as Candida glabrata) appear to be insensitive.

Cellulitis Periorbital & Orbital

What Causes Disease? Cellulitis around the eye in adult: Staphylococcus aureus most common, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumonia, Mixed infection.

Cellulitis

An acute, spreading infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Several entities are recognized: Treat 10-30 days. Guided by culture results whenever possible.

Central Nervous System Abscess

Brain abscess is an uncommon disease, found in about 1 in 10,000 general hospital admissions. Infection of the cerebral cortex can result from the direct spread of bacteria from another focus of infection (accounts for 20% to 60% of cases) or from hematogenous seeding.

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