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Candida Species

Candida organisms are commensal with humans and, in the absence of alterations in host defense mechanisms, usually do not cause disease. Candida exists as normal flora within the oral cavity, throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in expectorated sputum, in the vagina, and in the bladder of patients with indwelling catheters. There are >150 species within the genus Candida, although the majority are not known to cause disease in humans. C albicans, C krusei, C glabrata, C tropicalis, C pseudotropicalis, C guilliermondii, C parapsilosis, C lusitaniae, and C rugosa are known human pathogens.

Candida Vulvovaginitis

Risk factors for Candida infection of the vagina include pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, and antimicrobial therapy, although the majority of infections occur in the absence of these risks. Typical complaints are vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge (Box 1), although a wide range of symptoms exists.

Oral Candidiasis (Oral thrush)

Candida infections of the oral cavity are relatively common and may present in several forms. Any of the forms may be asymptomatic or may cause soreness and burning. The most common, acute pseudomembranous candidiasis, or oral thrush, presents with multiple white patches on the tongue, palate, and other areas of oral mucosa.

Neisseria Gonorrhoeae & Neisseria Meningitidis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae was first described by Albert Neisser in 1879, in the ocular discharge and exudate from newborn infants with conjunctivitis. Descriptions of a condition resembling the disease gonorrhea can be found in the written record as early as 130 AD, when Galen created a descriptor for the malady by using the Greek words gonos (seed) and rhoea (flow) to characterize what was believed to be the morbid loss of semen.

Buy Without Prescription Sporanox (Itraconazole) 100mg

Itraconazole is a triazole antifungal drug. It is used orally to treat oropharyngeal and vulvovaginal candidiasis, pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytoses unresponsive to topical treatment, and systemic infections, including aspergillosis, blastomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, cocci-dioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, paracocci-dioidomycosis, and sporotrichosis.

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In a group of children with fever, neutropenia, and neoplastic disease, there was an increase in renal fluconazole clearance. In infants and children, the volume of distribution of fluconazole is significantly higher and falls with age. With the exception of infants, who have a slower clearance rate, children clear the compound more rapidly. However, a second larger study reported slower elimination in children under 1 year of age, requiring dosage adjustments.

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Torsade de pointes and cardiorespiratory arrest have been reported in a patient with congenital long QT syndrome who took azithromycin. In a prospective study of 47 previously healthy people, there was a modest statistically insignificant prolongation of the QTC interval without clinical consequences after the end of a course of azithromycin 3 g/day for 5 days. Azithromycin can cause ototoxicity. In one study, 8 (17%) of 46 HIV-positive patients had probable (n = 6) or possible (n = 2) ototoxicity with azithromycin.

Candidiasis Mucocutaneous

A mucocutaneous disorder caused by infection with various species of Candida. Candida is normally present, in very small amounts, in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. Genetics: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that usually presents in childhood and can have an autosomal recessive, dominant or sporadic mode of inheritance. Sera from HIV-infected patients with thrush have been screened for C. albicans genomic expression.

HIV / AIDS

P. carinii pneumonia is the most common life-threatening opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. The taxonomy of the organism is unclear, having been classified as both protozoan and fungal.

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