Tags: Pharyngitis

Chlamydia

Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are among the most prevalent microbial pathogens in humans worldwide. C trachomatis is responsible for a variety of sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes in both sexes. In addition, certain serotypes of C trachomatis are responsible for trachoma, the most common infectious cause of blindness in humans. C psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen associated with atypical pneumonia.

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection & Disease

Infected humans are the only source of M pneumoniae organisms for transmission to new susceptible hosts. M pneumoniae is spread from one individual to another by respiratory droplets produced by coughing. Individuals at any age can be infected and develop disease, but those between the ages of 5 and 20 years are most often affected. M pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia in school-aged children and young adults — especially those in military and college populations.

Brucella, Francisella, Pasteurella, Yersinia, & Hacek

Brucellosis (also called undulant fever, Mediterranean fever, Malta fever) is an infection that causes abortion in domestic animals. It is caused by one of six species of Brucella coccobacilli. It may occasionally be transmitted to humans, in whom the disease could be acute or chronic with ongoing fever and constitutional symptoms without localized findings.

Pasteurella

Pasteurella multocida has been recovered from cultures of specimens from the nasopharynx and the gastrointestinal tract of a large number of asymptomatic wild and domestic animals. The highest carriage rates occur in cats (50%-90%), dogs or swine (50%), and rats (15%). Infections are usually preceded by a cat or dog bite or scratch on an extremity.

Yersiniosis

Conditions that are associated with increased risk for Yersinia spp. infections (yersiniosis) include iron overload states (such as in patients who receive chronic blood transfusions or those with hemochromatosis) and the use of desferrioxamine, a bacterial siderophore. Infections caused by Y enterocolitica are more common in children than adults.

Tularemia

Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia (also called rabbit fever or deerfly fever), an infectious disease that occurs primarily in animals. It may occasionally cause human disease, which most often manifests itself by one or more skin lesions, regional lymphadenopathy, fever, and constitutional symptoms.

Neisseria Meningitidis

N meningitidis is found only in humans and is a member of the normal oropharyngeal flora in 5-15% of healthy adults and children. In crowded or closed populations such as in boarding schools or military camps, higher carriage rates are observed.

Gram-Positive Aerobic Bacilli

L monocytogenes is found in soil, fertilizer, sewage, and stream water; on plants; and in the intestinal tracts of many mammals. It is a foodborne pathogen that causes bacteremic illness and meningoencephalitis, with few if any gastrointestinal manifestations.

Diphtheria

Humans are the only known natural hosts for C diphtheriae, the organism that causes diphtheria. This organism is usually spread via upper respiratory tract droplets, but it can also be spread by direct contact with skin lesions. Transmission appears to be more common when people are living indoors in crowded conditions.

Streptococcus Dysgalactiae Subspp. Equisilimis & Streptococcus Zooepidemicus: Clinical Syndromes

The symptoms of pharyngitis caused by these organisms mimic those of S pyogenes pharyngitis (Box 50-1; see also site). Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis has been described following S dysgalactiae subspp. equisimilis and S zooepidemicus pharyngitis.

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