Tags: Plague

Brucella, Francisella, Pasteurella, Yersinia, & Hacek

Brucellosis (also called undulant fever, Mediterranean fever, Malta fever) is an infection that causes abortion in domestic animals. It is caused by one of six species of Brucella coccobacilli. It may occasionally be transmitted to humans, in whom the disease could be acute or chronic with ongoing fever and constitutional symptoms without localized findings.

Yersiniosis

Conditions that are associated with increased risk for Yersinia spp. infections (yersiniosis) include iron overload states (such as in patients who receive chronic blood transfusions or those with hemochromatosis) and the use of desferrioxamine, a bacterial siderophore. Infections caused by Y enterocolitica are more common in children than adults.

Plague

The genus Yersinia, named after Alexander Yersin (1863-1943), includes Y pestis, Y enterocolitica, and Y pseudotuberculosis. Y pestis is the cause of plague, a disease that has left its mark on human history since the medieval time. Y enterocolitica and Y pseudotuberculosis also cause mesenteric lymphadenitis. Plague occurs worldwide.

Tularemia

Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia (also called rabbit fever or deerfly fever), an infectious disease that occurs primarily in animals. It may occasionally cause human disease, which most often manifests itself by one or more skin lesions, regional lymphadenopathy, fever, and constitutional symptoms.

Order Tetracycline (Sumycin) No Prescription 250\500mg

The tetracyclines are a closely related group of antibiotics with comparable pharmacological properties but different pharmacokinetic characteristics. They have both the advantages and disadvantages of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Tetracyclines are effective not only against bacteria and spirochetes, but also against some forms of Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Rickettsia, as well as protozoa.

Bartonella Infections

Blood cultures: lysis-centrifugation (Isolator) cultures plated on blood or chocolate agar, incubated at 35-37°C in 5% C02 > 2 weeks; enriched broth media, e.g. BACTER, incubated at 35-37°C in 5% C02 >2 weeks and subculture to agar if bacilli detected by periodic acridine orange staining. Avoid contact with potential vectors, especially young cats.

Cardiovascular Infections

Acute endocarditis is life-threatening and often requires surgical intervention. Subacute endocarditis is an indolent disease that can continue for months. Infective endocarditis remains a serious but relatively uncommon problem.

Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in each class can be subtle, often requiring the expertise of an infectious disease specialist to design the optimal anti-infective regimen. The general internist or physician-in-training should not attempt to memorize all the facts outlined here, but rather should read the pages that follow as an overview of anti-infectives. The chemistry, mechanisms of action, major toxicities, spectrum of activity, treatment indications, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens, and cost are reviewed.

Evaluation of the efficacy of vaccines

Adequate response to immunization is most frequently judged by measuring the development of specific serum immunoglobulins (e.g., antibodies) following a course of administration of vaccine. The concentration of specific immunoglobulin in plasma is usually proportional to the degree of protection from the viral agent.

Buy Vibramycin (Doxycycline) Without Prescription 100mg

Doxycycline calcium, doxycycline hyclate, and doxycycline monohydrate are administered orally. When oral therapy is not feasible, doxycycline hyclate may be administered by slow IV infusion; however, oral therapy should replace IV therapy as soon as possible.