Tags: Staphylococcal infections

Order Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Without Prescription 500mg

Amoxicillin, an acid stable, semi-synthetic drug belongs to a class of antibiotics called the Penicillins (beta-lactam antibiotics). It is shown to be effective against a wide range of infections caused by wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in both human and animals.

Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

Impetigo is a superficial skin infection that is seen most commonly in children. It is highly communicable and spreads through close contact. Most cases are caused by S. pyogenes, but S. aureus either alone or in combination with S. pyogenes has emerged as a principal cause of impetigo.

Toxicity of Antimicrobial Therapy

The mechanisms associated with common adverse reactions to antimicrobials include dose-related toxicity that occurs in a certain fraction of patients when a critical plasma concentration or total dose is exceeded, and toxicity that is unpredictable and mediated through allergic or idiosyncratic mechanisms. For example, certain classes of drugs such as the aminoglycosides are associated with dose-related toxicity.

Management of Bacterial Meningitis

Meningitis used to be a disease that occurred primarily in children younger than 12 years. The advent of a vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae has led to a marked change in the epidemiology of meningitis in developed countries.

Penicillins

Penicillin G is an acid that is combined with sodium, potassium, procaine, or benzathine to increase its stability or to regulate its absorption. The latter two are “long-acting” forms. Penicillin G is useful in the treatment of streptococcal infections due to S. pyogenes (group A), S. agalactiae (group B), S. pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, Corynebacterium diphtheria, N. meningitidis, many strains of N. gonorrhea, Treponema pallidum, and many anaerobic streptococci, such as peptococcus and peptostreptococcus.

Chloromycetin 250mg Tablets (Chloramphenicol)

Vancomycin and teicoplanin are the only members of this class of antibiotics. Vancomycin is a high-molecular-weight glycopeptide that is bactericidal for gram-positive microorganisms. It inhibits cell-wall synthesis. Given parenterally, it is the drug of choice for methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections.

Rifampin

In addition, HIV protease inhibitors and some NNRTIs (e.g., delavirdine) reduce the metabolism of rifamycins, leading to increased plasma concentrations of rifamycins and an increased risk of toxicity. The potential for alterations in the plasma concentrations of antimycobacterial agent(s) and/or antiretroviral agent(s) must be considered when antimycobacterial agents are indicated for the management of latent or active tuberculosis or the prophylaxis or treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections in HIV-infected patients who are receiving or are being considered for antiretroviral therapy. Although pharmacokinetic data and clinical experience are limited, some experts state that concomitant use of ritonavir (with or without saquinavir) and usual dosages of rifampin for the treatment of tuberculosis (600 mg daily or 2 or 3 times weekly) is a possibility. These experts state that rifampin can be used for the treatment of active tuberculosis in patients receiving an antiretroviral regimen that includes ritonavir and one or more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

Vancomycin Hydrochloride: Cautions

Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity are the most serious adverse effects of parenteral vancomycin therapy. To date, these adverse effects have not been reported in patients receiving vancomycin orally. The incidences of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity have not been well established, but clinical experience to date suggests that these adverse effects occur relatively infrequently.

Vancomycin Hydrochloride: Uses

IV vancomycin hydrochloride is used in the treatment of potentially life-threatening infections caused by susceptible organisms which cannot be treated with other effective, less toxic anti-infective agents. Vancomycin is used principally for the treatment of severe infections caused by gram-positive bacteria in patients who cannot receive or who have failed to respond to penicillins and cephalosporins or for the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections that are resistant to b-lactams and other anti-infectives. Prevention of the emergence of drug resistance, its dissemination among pathogens, and the spread of such pathogens has become an increasingly important public health problem. Medical, pharmacy, and other staff and individuals responsible for drug-use policy and formulary decisions should review and restrict the use of certain anti-infectives, including vancomycin, and ensure that their use is appropriate.

Bacitracin

IM bacitracin has been used in infants with pneumonia and empyema caused by staphylococci that are susceptible to the drug; however, use of bacitracin has, in most cases, been replaced by penicillinase-resistant penicillins or cephalosporins for infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci and by vancomycin for resistant strains. Penicillin is the drug of choice in infections caused by susceptible strains of nonpenicillinase-producing staphylococci. If bacitracin is used, the patient should be closely observed, and adequate laboratory facilities should be available. Diarrhea and Colitis Bacitracin has been used orally in a limited number of patients for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis (also known as antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis), including pseudomembranous colitis.