Tags: Trench fever


There are currently 11 known species of Bartonella, four of which are considered to be pathogenic in humans, namely B bacilliformis, B quintana, B henselae, and Bartonella elizabethae. B henselae and B elizabethae have only recently been isolated and identified, but B quintana and B bacilliformis have long been known as the causes of trench fever (B quintana) and Oroya fever and verruga peruana (B bacilliformis). The bartonellae establish intimate relationships with animal hosts, often within the vascular compartment but without causing disease. The relationship between B bacilliformis and the other three Bartonella species that are pathogenic in humans was established in the early 1990s.

Fever & Bacteremia/Trench Fever/Endocarditis

Patients complain of fever, myalgias, malaise, headache, bone pain — particularly of the legs, and a transient macular rash. Usually the illness continues for 4-6 weeks.

Bartonella Infections

Blood cultures: lysis-centrifugation (Isolator) cultures plated on blood or chocolate agar, incubated at 35-37°C in 5% C02 > 2 weeks; enriched broth media, e.g. BACTER, incubated at 35-37°C in 5% C02 >2 weeks and subculture to agar if bacilli detected by periodic acridine orange staining. Avoid contact with potential vectors, especially young cats.

Tetracyclines General Statement: Uses

Tetracyclines are used principally in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and a variety of uncommon gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

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Oral azithromycin also is used for the treatment of urethritis or cervicitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and for the treatment of chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. Azithromycin is used orally for the treatment of disseminated infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and for prevention of disseminated MAC infection (both primary and secondary prophylaxis) in HIV-infected individuals. Azithromycin is used orally in children for the treatment of acute otitis media, community-acquired pneumonia, and pharyngitis or tonsillitis caused by susceptible organisms.

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Prior to initiation of erythromycin therapy, appropriate specimens should be obtained for identification of the causative organism and in vitro susceptibility tests. Use of erythromycin does not preclude the necessity for surgical procedures (such as incision and drainage) as needed. There does not appear to be a difference in clinical efficacy among the erythromycin derivatives when each is administered in appropriate doses. However, some clinicians believe that the risk of hepatotoxicity from the estolate derivative does not justify its use.

Ceftriaxone Sodium

Ceftriaxone is used for the treatment of bone and joint infections, endocarditis, intra-abdominal infections, meningitis and other CNS infections, otitis media, respiratory tract infections,septicemia, skin and skin structure infections, and urinary tract infections caused by susceptible bacteria.

Order Erythromycin (Ilosone) Without Prescription 250/500mg

Erythromycin is a macrolide antibacterial with a wide spectrum of activity, that has been used in the treatment of a wide range of infections caused by susceptible organisms.

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Tetracycline [Sumycin 250mg, 500mg]. Tetracycline Hydrochloride. Tetracycline Phosphate Complex.