Tags: Tuberculosis

Leishmania

The genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma are members of the family Trypanosomatidae. These protozoans cause diseases with widely varied clinical presentations as well as geographic distributions, including leishmaniasis, American trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ disease), and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).

Toxoplasma Gondii

Toxoplasma gondii infection, or toxoplasmosis, is a zoonosis (the definitive hosts are members of the cat family). The two most common routes of infection in humans are by oral ingestion of the parasite and by transplacental (congenital) transmission to the fetus. Ingestion of undercooked or raw meat that contains cysts or of water or food contaminated with oocysts results in acute infection.

Chromomycosis

Chromomycosis, also known as chromoblastomycosis, is a chronic subcutaneous infection caused by several different fungi. Although rarely seen in the United States, it is common worldwide. Chromomycosis occurs worldwide but is most frequently encountered in tropical and subtropical regions. The most common occurrence is in barefoot individuals, particularly among agricultural workers.

Paracoccidioidomycosis

Paracoccidioidomycosis is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Also known as South American blastomycosis, it is the most prevalent systemic mycosis found in Central and South America and is the most common endemic mycosis in this area. Paracoccidioidomycosis is acquired only in Central and South America and ranges from Mexico to Argentina.

Penicillium Infections

Penicillium spp. are ubiquitous in nature and may be recovered with ease from a variety of sources within the hospital environment. These molds commonly contaminate clinical specimens and cause contamination in the laboratory. Colonization of nonsterile anatomical sites in humans is common. In most cases where Penicillium spp. are recovered from clinical specimens, they represent colonization.

Aspergilloma

An aspergilloma of the lung may develop in individuals who have preexisting cavitary lung disease caused by conditions such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, silicosis, or bronchiectasis. Also known as a fungus ball or mycetoma, aspergillomas can be regarded as heavy Aspergillus colonization of the preexisting cavity. The most common symptom is hemoptysis, and, on rare occasions, severe or fatal hemoptysis can develop.

Blastomyces Dermatitidis (Blastomycosis)

Blastomyces dermatitidis is an endemic fungus that causes acute and chronic infections in humans and other animals. It is found primarily in the south central, southeastern, and midwestern United States, especially in the states surrounding the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Outside the United States, cases have been reported from Canadian provinces bordering the Great Lakes, Africa, India, the Middle East, and Central and South America.

Histoplasma Capsulatum

Histoplasma capsulatum, the etiologic agent of histoplasmosis, is an endemic, dimorphic fungus that causes a wide spectrum of disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. It is found in temperate zones around the world. In the United States, it is endemic within the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys.

Bartonella

There are currently 11 known species of Bartonella, four of which are considered to be pathogenic in humans, namely B bacilliformis, B quintana, B henselae, and Bartonella elizabethae. B henselae and B elizabethae have only recently been isolated and identified, but B quintana and B bacilliformis have long been known as the causes of trench fever (B quintana) and Oroya fever and verruga peruana (B bacilliformis). The bartonellae establish intimate relationships with animal hosts, often within the vascular compartment but without causing disease. The relationship between B bacilliformis and the other three Bartonella species that are pathogenic in humans was established in the early 1990s.

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