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Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in each class can be subtle, often requiring the expertise of an infectious disease specialist to design the optimal anti-infective regimen. The general internist or physician-in-training should not attempt to memorize all the facts outlined here, but rather should read the pages that follow as an overview of anti-infectives. The chemistry, mechanisms of action, major toxicities, spectrum of activity, treatment indications, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens, and cost are reviewed.

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials.

Order Ampicillin (Principen) No Prescription 250/500mg

Ampicillin sodium and sulbactam sodium is used parenterally for the treatment of skin and skin structure, intra-abdominal, and gynecologic infections caused by susceptible bacteria. The drug also has been used parenterally for the treatment of other infections, including respiratory tract infections caused by susceptible bacteria.

Penicillins

The penicillins comprise several subgroups of agents with a wide range of bacterial coverage and efficacy. Each penicillin molecule contains a basic β-lactam structure fused to a five-membered ring. Because of their broad spectrum of activity and availability in oral form, the penicillins are commonly used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and have become the drugs of choice in treating many common infections.

Penicillins

The penicillins comprise several subgroups of agents with a wide range of bacterial coverage and efficacy. Each penicillin molecule contains a basic β-lactam structure fused to a five-membered ring. Because of their broad spectrum of activity and availability in oral form, the penicillins are commonly used in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and have become the drugs of choice in treating many common infections. The penicillins are further divided into the following groups: natural penicillins, aminopenicillins, and the extended-spectrum penicillins.

Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis: Current therapies

TABLE: Pharmacological Management of Underlying Disease During an Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis summarizes the general pharmacological agents and classes used to manage acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The primary therapies used in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis treat the causative infection (antibiotics), relieve symptoms (bronchodilators), and treat the underlying inflammation (corticosteroids). TABLE: Current Therapies Used for Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis summarizes the leading antibiotic therapies used to treat the infection.

Sultamicillin

Sultamicillin is given orally as tablets containing sultamicillin tosilate or as oral suspension containing sultamicillin. It is used in the treatment of infections where beta-lactamase-producing organisms might occur, including uncomplicated gonorrhoea, otitis media, and respiratory-tract and urinary-tract infections.

Buy Generic Principen (Ampicillin) No Prescription 250/500mg

Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic. It is bactericidal and has a similar mode of action to that of benzylpenicillin, but as an aminopenicillin with an amino group side-chain attached to the basic penicillin structure, ampicillin is better able to penetrate the outer membrane of some Gram-negative bacteria and has a broader spectrum of activity.