Tags: Urinary tract infections

Non-falciparum Malaria (P Vivax, P Ovale, P Malariae)

Clinical Findings Signs and Symptoms Patients with nonfalciparum malaria invariably develop fever and chills that may become cyclic. Initially, patients experience chills, which are followed by fever (Box 1). Patients with malaria often manifest many nonspecific symptoms such as weakness, malaise, headache, and myalgias. As the disease progresses, signs of anemia, such as pale conjunctiva, may be seen. Splenomegaly and mild hepatomegaly may also be present. After hours of fever, defervescence occurs with marked diaphoresis. Patients are weakened and exhausted from the severity of the disease. In established infections caused by P vivax and P ovale, a periodicity may occur approximately every 48 h. P vivax and P ovale infections are […]

Mycoplasma & Ureaplasma

Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species (mycoplasmas) are ubiquitous in nature and are commonly found in plants, animals, and humans. These bacteria contain the smallest amount of double-stranded DNA that is capable of producing a free-living microorganism; they measure between 0.15 and 0.3 um in diameter and = 2 um in length. They are believed to have evolved from a putative common ancestor of the gram-positive bacteria by a process of genome reduction and adoption of a dependent, parasitic life style. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp. lack a cell wall. Therefore, they cannot be visualized with the Gram stain and are not susceptible to antibiotics that act on cell wall synthesis (eg, penicillins and […]

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Essentials of Diagnosis Nosocomial acquisition. Predisposing factors include immunosuppression (neutropenia, cystic fibrosis [CF], AIDS, corticosteroid use, diabetes mellitus); presence of a foreign body, prosthesis, or instrumentation; prolonged hospitalization and antibiotic use; intravenous drug use. Most common infections include pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, otitis media, skin and skin structure infections, including ecthyma gangrenosa. Gram stain shows gram-negative bacilli; recovery of microorganism from culture of blood or other tissue. General Considerations Epidemiology The genus Pseudomonas consists of a number of human pathogens, the most important of which is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen found widely in soil, water, and organic material, reflecting its limited nutritional requirements. A moist environment […]

Enteritis Caused by Escherichia coli & Shigella & Salmonella Species

Essentials of Diagnosis Enteritis: diarrhea, which may be watery, bloody, or dysenteric; abdominal pain; and fever and/or; Systemic disease: highly variable presentations that may include enteric fever, hemolytic uremic syndrome, or bacteremia with infectious foci in distant sites. History of exposure, possibly in known endemic areas or associated with an outbreak, through the ingestion of unclean water, unpasteurized juice or milk, undercooked meats, or other possibly contaminated food. Microbiologic isolation and identification of enteric pathogens or molecular detection. General Considerations The Enterobacteriaceae are a diverse family of bacteria that, in nature, exist in soil, on plant material, and in the intestines of humans and other animals. Another ecological niche in which […]

Group B Streptococcus (S Agalactiae) Clinical Syndromes

EARLY-ONSET GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL NEONATAL INFECTION Early-onset group B streptococcal neonatal infection has three major clinical expressions: bacteremia with no identifiable focus of infection, pneumonia, and meningitis (Box 1). Signs and symptoms of early-onset group B streptococcal neonatal infection include lethargy, poor feeding, jaundice, abnormal temperature, grunting respirations, pallor, and hypotension. In most infants with pneumonia, symptoms of respiratory distress are present at or within a few hours after birth. Signs of respiratory distress associated with pneumonia include apnea, grunting, tachypnea, and cyanosis. The radiographic findings in infants with pneumonia may be indistinguishable from those of hyaline membrane disease. Infants with meningitis have a clinical presentation that initially cannot be distinguished […]


Essentials of Diagnosis Gram stain shows gram-positive cocci that occur in singles, pairs, and short chains; recovery of microorganism from culture of blood or other sterile source. Lancefield group D antigen. Clinical isolates: Enterococcus faecalis, 74%; E faecium, 16%; other species, 10%. Facultative anaerobes grow in 6.5% NaCl at pH 9.6 and at temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 45 °C, and grow in the presence of 40% bile salts and hydrolyze esculin and L-pyrrolidonyl-ß-naphthylamide. Infections typically of a gastrointestinal or genitourinary origin. The most common infections are urinary tract infection, bacteremia, endocarditis, intra-abdominal and pelvic infection, and wound and soft tissue infection. General Considerations Epidemiology Enterococci are able to grow […]

Enterococci: Clinical Syndromes

URINARY TRACT INFECTION Urinary tract infections, including uncomplicated cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, and perinephric abscess, are the most common type of clinical infections produced by enterococci (Box 1). Most enterococcal urinary tract infections are nosocomial and are associated with urinary catheterization or instrumentation. BACTEREMIA & ENDOCARDITIS Nosocomial enterococcal bacteremias are commonly polymicrobial. Portals of entry for enterococcal bacteremia include the urinary tract, intra-abdominal or pelvic sources, wounds (especially burns, decubitus ulcers, and diabetic foot infections), intravascular catheters, and the biliary tree. Metastatic infections other than endocarditis are rare in enterococcal bacteremia. Enterococci account for ~5-10% of all cases of infective endocarditis (see site). Most cases are caused by E faecalis, but E […]


STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Essentials of Diagnosis Large gram-positive cocci (0.7-1.5 um in size). Colonies surrounded by zone of hemolysis on blood agar. Colonies pigmented pale yellow to deep orange macroscopically. Cluster in grapelike bunches microscopically. Biochemically differentiated from streptococci by presence of the enzyme catalase. Biochemically differentiated from other staphylococci by presence of the enzyme coagulase. Analysis of chromosomal DNA can identify clonal isolates (useful in epidemiologic studies). General Considerations Epidemiology Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the human skin, vagina, nasopharynx, and gastrointestinal tract. Colonization occurs shortly after birth and may be either transient or persistent. Published studies differ widely in estimates of the prevalence of S aureus carriage. Between 10% and 35% of […]

Enteroviruses: Clinical Syndromes

The clinical syndromes of the enteroviruses are determined by several factors, including the viral serotype, infecting dose, tissue tropism, portal of entry, age, sex, pregnancy status, and state of health (Box 1). POLIOVIRUS INFECTION Polio vaccines and global eradication efforts have eliminated poliomyelitis from the Western Hemisphere and are expected to eliminate "wild" polio infections from the world in the near future. However, vaccine-associated cases of polio do occur. Clinical Findings Signs and Symptoms Poliovirus may cause one of four outcomes, depending on the progression of the infection: Asymptomatic illness results if the virus is limited to infection of the oropharynx and the gut. At least 90% of poliovirus infections are […]

Ciprofloxacin 250mg, 500mg, 750mg Tablets [Cipro, Ciproxin]

Generic Name: Ciprofloxacin Information For The User Ciprofloxacin 250mg Film-Coated Tablets Ciprofloxacin 500mg Film-Coated Tablets Ciprofloxacin 750mg Film-Coated Tablets What Are Ciprofloxacin Tablets And What Are They Used For? Ciprofloxacin belongs to a group of medicines known as the quinolone antibacterials, fluoroquinolones. It has high anti-bacterial activity against a wide range of organisms. Ciprofloxacin works by killing bacteria that cause infections, it only works with specific strains of bacteria. Adults: Ciprofloxacin is used to treat the following bacterial infections: respiratory tract infections(Eg. certain types of pneumonia) long lasting or recurring ear or sinus infections urinary tract infections (bladder and kidneys infection) infections of the testicles genital organ infections in women(e.g. gonorrhoea, […]