Tags: Urinary tract infections

Surgical Prophylaxis

The traditional classification system developed by the National Research Council  stratifying surgical procedures by infection risk is reproduced in Table NRC Wound Classification, Risk of SSI, and Indication for Antibiotics. The National Research Council wound classification for a specific procedure is determined intraoperatively.

Infectious disorders

Infectious diseases comprise those illnesses that are caused by microorganisms or their products. Clinical manifestations of infection occur only when sufficient tissue injury has been inflicted directly by microbial products (e.g., endotoxins and exotoxins), or indirectly by host responses (e.g., cytokines and hydrolytic enzymes released by polymorphonuclear leukocytes). Despite the extraordinary recent advances that have occurred in therapeutics for infectious diseases, a number of basic principles should be followed to prescribe antimicrobials and vaccines is an optimal manner.

Epidemiologic and virulence factors in infectious diseases

Before appropriate therapy can be given for an infectious disease, consideration of epidemiologic factors is essential. This section does not fully discuss the epidemiology (the determinants, occurrence, distribution, and control of health and disease) of infectious diseases. However, a number of basic principles and historical points are worth emphasizing.

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials.

Toxicity of Antimicrobial Therapy

The mechanisms associated with common adverse reactions to antimicrobials include dose-related toxicity that occurs in a certain fraction of patients when a critical plasma concentration or total dose is exceeded, and toxicity that is unpredictable and mediated through allergic or idiosyncratic mechanisms. For example, certain classes of drugs such as the aminoglycosides are associated with dose-related toxicity.

Management of Sepsis

Sepsis, sepsis syndrome, septic shock, and multiorgan dysfunction are all part of a continuum of infection-related systemic illness. Table Definitions for Sepsis, Sepsis Syndrome, Septic Shock and Multiorgan Dysfunction Syndrome gives definitions for each of these entities. The pathogenesis of sepsis is very complex, involving a large number of mediators.


Penicillin G is an acid that is combined with sodium, potassium, procaine, or benzathine to increase its stability or to regulate its absorption. The latter two are “long-acting” forms. Penicillin G is useful in the treatment of streptococcal infections due to S. pyogenes (group A), S. agalactiae (group B), S. pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, Corynebacterium diphtheria, N. meningitidis, many strains of N. gonorrhea, Treponema pallidum, and many anaerobic streptococci, such as peptococcus and peptostreptococcus.

Aminoglycosides – antibiotic agents

Aminoglycosides are very potent bactericidal antibiotic agents that are active against susceptible aerobic microorganisms. They kill by inhibiting protein synthesis and to some extent by lysing the cell envelope. All the aminoglycosides (streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, sisomicin, and netilmicin) share common structural features. Streptomycin is used once a day in combination with other antibiotics to treat mycobacterial infections.

Buy Generic Fluconazole (Diflucan) No Prescription 50/100/150/200mg

Fluconazole is administered orally or by IV infusion. Since absorption of fluconazole from the GI tract is rapid and almost complete, IV therapy with the drug generally is reserved for patients who do not tolerate or are unable to take the drug orally.