Tags: Vancocin

Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in each class can be subtle, often requiring the expertise of an infectious disease specialist to design the optimal anti-infective regimen. The general internist or physician-in-training should not attempt to memorize all the facts outlined here, but rather should read the pages that follow as an overview of anti-infectives. The chemistry, mechanisms of action, major toxicities, spectrum of activity, treatment indications, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens, and cost are reviewed.

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials.

Management of Bacterial Meningitis

Meningitis used to be a disease that occurred primarily in children younger than 12 years. The advent of a vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae has led to a marked change in the epidemiology of meningitis in developed countries.

Vancomycin Hydrochloride

Limited information is available on the acute toxicity of vancomycin. The IV LD50 of the drug in rats or mice is 319 or 400 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of vancomycin overdosage is mainly supportive with maintenance of glomerular filtration.

Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Current Therapies

Many highly effective agents are available for the treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia) and other community-acquire respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Currently marketed antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia demonstrate similar efficacy rates in clinical trials, and these agents have generally achieved clinical symptom resolution in 85-95% of trial participants.

Glycopeptides – Bactericidal Antibiotics

Glycopeptides are bactericidal antibiotics used principally for treatment of severe gram-positive infections in patients who cannot receive or who have failed to respond to penicillins and cephalosporins. They may also be used in patients suspected of having pathogens resistant to β-lactams and other anti-infectives.

Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis: Current therapies

TABLE: Pharmacological Management of Underlying Disease During an Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis summarizes the general pharmacological agents and classes used to manage acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The primary therapies used in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis treat the causative infection (antibiotics), relieve symptoms (bronchodilators), and treat the underlying inflammation (corticosteroids). TABLE: Current Therapies Used for Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis summarizes the leading antibiotic therapies used to treat the infection.

Sepsis

Sepsis. Description of Medical Condition. Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease. What Causes Disease?

Successful Antibiotic Desensitization

Antibiotics are often an essential component of the therapeutic plan that is developed to improve the clinical course of a patient. Typically, certain antibiotics are better for a given clinical condition. Allergies to these antibiotics, however, may limit the use of these antibiotics and in certain cases may complicate the course of optimal care. Allergies to antibiotics have become an great hindrance to the clinician.