Vaccines, Toxoids, and other Immunobiologics

Definitions Immunization is the process of introducing an antigen into the body to induce protection against an infectious agent without causing disease. Vaccines are substances administered to generate a protective immune response. Toxoids are inactivated bacterial toxins. They retain the ability to stimulate the formation of antitoxin. Adjuvants are inert substances, such as aluminum salts (i.e., alum), which enhance vaccine antigenicity by prolonging antigen absorption. Immune sera are sterile solutions containing antibody derived from human (immune globulin) or equine (antitoxin) sources. Antitoxins contain antibodies that are made by immunizing animals with an antigen and then harvesting the antibodies from serum. Vaccine and toxoid recommendations In general, inactivated vaccines can be administered […]

Tetanus toxoid, tetanus toxoid adsorbed, and tetanus immune globulin

In children, primary immunization against tetanus is usually done in conjunction with diphtheria and pertussis vaccination using DTaP or a combination vaccine that includes hepatitis B and polio vaccines. A 0.5-mL dose is recommended at 2, 4, 6, and 15 to 18 months of age. Additional doses of tetanus toxoid are recommended as part of traumatic wound management if a patient has not received a dose of tetanus toxoid within the preceding 5 years (Table Tetanus Prophylaxis). In adults or children older than 7 years of age where primary immunization against tetanus alone is needed, a series of three doses of Td is administered intramuscularly; the initial dose is followed by […]

Pneumococcal vaccine

Pneumococcal vaccine is a mixture of capsular polysaccharides from 23 of the 83 most prevalent types of Streptococcus pneumoniae seen in the United States. Pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for the following immunocompetent persons: Persons 65 or more years of age. If an individual received vaccine more than 5 years earlier and was under age 65 at the time of administration, revaccination should be given. Persons aged 2 to 64 years with chronic illness. Persons aged 2 to 64 years with functional or anatomic asplenia. When splenectomy is planned, pneumococcal vaccine should be given at least 2 weeks prior to surgery. Persons aged 2 to 64 years living in environments where the […]